**MCAS Grade 5 Number
Sense and Operations Strand**

**Students
engage in problem solving, communicating, reasoning, connecting, and
representing as they:**

**5.N.1 **Demonstrate
an understanding of (positive integer) powers of ten, e.g., 10^{2},
10^{5}.

**5.N.2 **Demonstrate
an understanding of place value through millions and thousandths.

**5.N.3 **Represent
and compare large (millions) and small (thousandths) positive numbers
in various forms, such as expanded notation without exponents, e.g.,
9724 = 9 x 1000 + 7 x 100 + 2 x 10 + 4.

**5.N.4 **Demonstrate
an understanding of fractions as a ratio of whole numbers, as parts
of unit wholes, as parts of a collection, and as locations on the
number line.*This
standard is intentionally the same as standard 6.N.4.*

**5.N.5 **Identify
and determine common equivalent fractions (with denominators 2, 4, 5,
10) and mixed numbers (with denominators 2, 4, 5, 10), decimals, and
percents (through one hundred percent), e.g., 3/4 = 0.75 = 75%.

**5.N.6 **Find
and position whole numbers, positive fractions, positive mixed
numbers, and positive decimals on a number line.

**5.N.7 **Compare
and order whole numbers, positive fractions, positive mixed numbers,
positive decimals, and percents.

**5.N.8 **Apply
the number theory concepts of common factor, common multiple, and
divisibility rules for 2, 3, 5, and 10 to the solution of problems.
Demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of prime and composite
numbers.

**5.N.9 **Solve
problems involving multiplication and division of whole numbers, and
multiplication of positive fractions with whole numbers.

**5.N.10** Demonstrate
an understanding of how parentheses affect expressions involving
addition, subtraction, and multiplication, and use that understanding
to solve problems, e.g., 3 x (4 + 2) = 3 x 6.

**5.N.11** Demonstrate
an understanding of the inverse relationship of addition and
subtraction, and use that understanding to simplify computation
and solve problems.*This
standard is intentionally the same as standard 6.N.12.*

**5.N.12** Accurately
and efficiently add and subtract whole numbers and positive decimals.
Multiply and divide (using double-digit divisors) whole numbers.
Multiply positive decimals with whole numbers.

**5.N.13** Accurately
and efficiently add and subtract positive fractions and mixed numbers
with like denominators and with unlike denominators (2, 4, 5, 10
only); multiply positive fractions with whole numbers. Simplify
fractions in cases when both the numerator and the denominator
have 2, 3, 4, 5, or 10 as a common factor.

**5.N.14** Estimate
sums and differences of whole numbers, positive fractions, and
positive decimals. Estimate products of whole numbers and products of
positive decimals with whole numbers. Use a variety of strategies and
judge the reasonableness of the answer.