MCAS Grade 5  Number Sense and Operations Strand

Students engage in problem solving, communicating, reasoning, connecting, and representing as they:

5.N.1 Demonstrate an understanding of (positive integer) powers of ten, e.g., 102, 105.

5.N.2 Demonstrate an understanding of place value through millions and thousandths.

5.N.3 Represent and compare large (millions) and small (thousandths) positive numbers in various forms, such as expanded notation without exponents, e.g., 9724 = 9 x 1000 + 7 x 100 + 2 x 10 + 4.

5.N.4 Demonstrate an understanding of fractions as a ratio of whole numbers, as parts of unit wholes, as parts of a collection, and as locations on the number line.
This standard is intentionally the same as standard 6.N.4.

5.N.5 Identify and determine common equivalent fractions (with denominators 2, 4, 5, 10) and mixed numbers (with denominators 2, 4, 5, 10), decimals, and percents (through one ­hundred percent), e.g., 3/4 = 0.75 = 75%.

5.N.6 Find and position whole numbers, positive fractions, positive mixed numbers, and positive decimals on a number line.

5.N.7 Compare and order whole numbers, positive fractions, positive mixed numbers, positive ­decimals, and percents.

5.N.8 Apply the number theory concepts of common factor, common multiple, and divisibility rules for 2, 3, 5, and 10 to the solution of problems. Demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of prime and composite numbers.

5.N.9 Solve problems involving multiplication and division of whole numbers, and multiplication of positive fractions with whole numbers.

5.N.10 Demonstrate an understanding of how parentheses affect expressions involving addition, subtraction, and multiplication, and use that understanding to solve problems, e.g., 3 x (4 + 2) = 3 x 6.

5.N.11 Demonstrate an understanding of the inverse relationship of addition and ­subtraction, and use that understanding to simplify computation and solve problems.
This standard is intentionally the same as standard 6.N.12.

5.N.12 Accurately and efficiently add and subtract whole numbers and positive decimals. Multiply and divide (using double-digit divisors) whole numbers. Multiply positive decimals with whole numbers.

5.N.13 Accurately and efficiently add and subtract positive fractions and mixed numbers with like denominators and with unlike denominators (2, 4, 5, 10 only); multiply positive fractions with whole numbers. Simplify fractions in cases when both the numerator and the ­denominator have 2, 3, 4, 5, or 10 as a common factor.

5.N.14 Estimate sums and differences of whole numbers, positive fractions, and positive decimals. Estimate products of whole numbers and products of positive decimals with whole numbers. Use a variety of strategies and judge the reasonableness of the answer.